Queen breeding and genetics af Eigil Holm

Queen breeding and genetics af Eigil Holm

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Breeders and producers of queens need a handbook which describes the background of their work. It can only be done if ou know the techniques of rearing queens and judging the results. You must know the genetics of the bees, too, because it enables you to plan the maintenance and improvements of your stock. The aim of this book is to help the practical people who rear queens. The author has written books and articles of beekeeping since 1983, see www.eigilholm.dk. Content of Queen Breeding and Bee Genetics preface 5 1. production of queens 6 The basis of queen production 6 Methods of queen rearing 7 Grafting 8 The calendar 8 The cell builder 9 The breeder colony 10 Grafting tools 10 Grafting procedure 11 Transfer to the cell builder 12 Incubation 12 How to obtain young bees 14 Marking of queens 14 Transport cage and candy 16 Shipping 17 2. mating nucs 18 How to use the nuc 19 Continous management of a nuc 21 Clearing after the mating season 21 3. alternative metods 22 1. The queen production and breeding of Poul Erik Sørensen 22 2. Queen right cell builder 24 3. The starting box method 25 4. mating stations 26 Organization of the queen breeding 26 Drone producers 28 Placing of the mating nucs 29 One-comb nuc 30 How to remove drones 31 Transport 31 How to treat the mated queens 31 5. instrumental insemination 33 Types of insemination 33 Insemination in genetic research 33 On techniques of insemination 33 Drones and their sperm 34 6. how to get better bees 38 The ABC of breeding 38 1. The aims of breeding 38 2. Judgment 38 3. Selection 38 4. Crossing 39 6. Maintenance 39 7. aims of breeding and judgment 40 Marks used for judging bee colonies 41 Comments to the marks 42 Marks of the year 43 How to use the marks 43 Other judgments 43 Judges 44 Environment and judgment 44 8. queen breeding and genetics 45 The genetic consequences of the mating behaviour 46 Congregational areas 47 9. how to make a pedigree 48 The danish breeders pedigree 49 10. bee cytology and genetics 50 The cell 51 The genes 51 The anatomy of the gene 53 The genome and how to read it 53 Microsatellites 55 Maternel and parentel heritage 56 Mitochondria 57 11. meiosis and genes 58 Dominant and recessive alleles 58 Mating and segregation 60 Mating in populations 62 Co-dominance 62 Mendel's firs law 62 12. mendel's second law 64 Segregation of two gene pairs 64 Why are bees different 66 Linkage and cross-over 66 Mendel´s second law 68 13. sex alleles, additive genes, nature and nurture 69 Effect of the number of sex alleles 70 Additive genes 71 Mutations 71 Inbreeding and heterosis 73 Nature and nurture 73 The relative importance of genes and environment 74 Heritability 74 14. bee races and evolution 75 The origin of races 76 Nature is changing 77 Races 78 The fate of the races 78 How to use the races 79 Morphological characters of races 80 Genetic examination of races 80 15. breeding 82 The Buckfast bee 82 Combination Breeding, an overview 82 Selection 83 Crossing strategy 83 Testing 84 Maintenance of stocks 85 Stocks for drone production 86 Closed populations 86 16. A German breeding system 87 17. the future 89 litterature 90 INDEX 91

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